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Turkish Conjugation Rules That Will Make Your Life Easier


Before we begin, why should you learn Turkish conjugation? 

Well, conjugation is what allows you to effectively convey thoughts and ideas in a way that makes sense to others. By learning the proper conjugation of Turkish verbs early on in your studies, you’re giving yourself a head start to reaching fluency.

In this article, we’ll cover the basics of conjugation in Turkish, starting with how conjugation works in general. Let’s get started.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Turkish Table of Contents
  1. General Info on Conjugation
  2. Conjugation in Turkish
  3. Verb Modification
  4. Ready for a Challenge?
  5. Conclusion

1. General Info on Conjugation

Top Verbs

Conjugation is how you change or modify a verb’s basic form to convey a different meaning, or to express the following:

  • Person / Subject
  • Gender (male or female)
  • Tense
  • Mood
  • Aspect
  • Voice
  • Number (singular or plural)
  • Politeness level (formal or informal)

Every language is different, and of course, these are general parameters, all of which may not apply to all languages.

Now that you know the very basics, we’ll talk about Turkish verb conjugation and provide you with some Turkish verb conjugation charts along the way.

2. Conjugation in Turkish

More Essential Verbs

Verbs are the main building blocks of a sentence. Therefore, when learning Turkish, knowing how to conjugate them is critical. It takes quite a bit of time, and it’s not very simple. 

Did I intimidate you? No, no, that’s not what I wanted to do. 

I just want to advise you that you should pay close attention to the Turkish conjugation rules. You may also want to make a Turkish verb conjugation chart for yourself, or create a Turkish verbs conjugation PDF file for future reference.

Turkish Flag

Now, let’s see which of the factors I mentioned above are involved in Turkish verb conjugation.

I. Person / Subject

In Turkish, different suffixes are added to a verb based on the person/subject it alludes to. Since the verb of the sentence already contains a personal pronoun through the suffix it takes, personal pronouns aren’t usually used in sentences. Vowels in the suffixes change based on the vowel harmony.

I’ll provide rules and examples for this below when talking about the tenses.

II. Number of Subjects

Whether the subject is singular or plural impacts the suffix the verb will get. I’ll provide examples for this later on in this article.

III. Politeness Level

In Turkish, we use the plural “you” both as it’s used in English, and also as a polite, formal way of naming or referring to someone. The Turkish verb conjugation rules for the plural “you” also apply to the polite “you.” 

IV. Tense

Tenses are the most confusing of all. I’ll make a Turkish verb conjugation chart for each tense, including the person/subject suffixes. I highly recommend that you prepare your own reference file using those charts, so that you can find all of the Turkish verb conjugation information in one place.

A. The Verb “To Be”

The thing about the verb “to be” in Turkish is that there isn’t a word for it like there is in English (“am,” “is,” “are”). Instead, the suffixes imply the meaning.

Word ending with a consonant
Person + “to be”
Last syllable of the word has “a” or “ı”
Last syllable of the word has “e” or “i”Last syllable of the word has “o” or “u”Last syllable of the word has “ö” or “ü”Word ending with a vowel
“I am”
-ım-ım-um-umBuffer y + (rules for the word ending with a consonant)
“You are” 
-sın-sın-sun-sunSame rules in this line
“He / she / it is”
-dır / tır-dır / tır-dur / tur-dur / turSame rules in this line
“We are”
-ız-ız-uz-uzBuffer y + (rules for the word ending with a consonant)
“You are”
-sınız-sınız-sunuz-sunuzSame rules in this line
“They are”
-dırlar / tırlar
or  -lar
-dirler / tirler
or  -ler
-durlar /  turlar
or  -lar
-dürler / türler
or  -ler
Same rules in this line

Please note that the third person singular pronoun doesn’t have to take the suffix; you can leave it blank. The third person plural pronoun doesn’t have to take the whole suffix, either; it can take only the plural suffixes -ler and -lar.

Here are some examples:

Person + “to be”Kızgın – “Angry”Öğretmen – “Teacher”Tok – “Full”Üzgün – “Sad”Zeki – “Smart”
“I am”
“You are”
“He / she / it is”
“We are”
“You are”
“They are”

B. Modal Verbs

In Turkish, there aren’t separate words for the modal verbs. To form modal verbs, certain suffixes are added to the verbs. For example:

  • Can

In Turkish, we express “can” using the suffix -abil or -ebil. We add the appropriate one to the verb root based on its last vowel. -abil and -ebil can be used with any tense, but are usually used with the present simple tense. If the verb ends with a vowel, then the buffer y is added before the -abil or -ebil suffix.

  Verb ending with a consonant
Last vowel of the verb root
Verb ending with a vowel
     Last vowel of the verb root
“He / she / it”


Ben atabilirim.
(“I can throw.”)
Ben çekebilirim.
(“I can pull.”)
Ben arayabilirim.
(“I can call.”)
Ben söyleyebilirim.
(“I can tell.”)
Sen atabilirsin.
(“You can throw.”)
Sen çekebilirsin.
(“You can pull.”)
Sen arayabilirsin.
(“You can call.”)
Sen söyleyebilirsin.
(“You can tell.”)
O atabilir.
(“He / she / it can throw.”)
O çekebilir.
(“He / she / it can pull.”)
O arayabilir.
(“He / she / it can call.”)
O söyleyebilir.
(“He / she / it can tell.”)
Biz atabiliriz.
(“We can throw.”)
Biz çekebiliriz.
(“We can pull.”)
Biz arayabiliriz.
(“We can call.”)
Biz söyleyebiliriz.
(“We can tell.”)
Siz atabilirsiniz.
(“You can throw.”)
Siz çekebilirsiniz.
(“You can pull.”)
Siz arayabilirsiniz.
(“You can call.”)
Siz söyleyebilirsiniz.
(“You can tell.”)
Onlar atabilirler.
(“They can throw.”)
Onlar çekebilirler.
(“They can pull.”)
Onlar arayabilirler.
(“They can call.”)
Onlar söyleyebilirler.
(“They can tell.”)
  • Must

In Turkish, we express “must” using the suffixes -malı or -meli, which are added to the verb root.

Last vowel of the verb root
“He / she / it”

Here are some examples:

Ben yapmalıyım.
(“I must do.”)
Ben gelmeliyim.
(“I must come.”)
Sen yapmalısın.
(“You must do.”)
Sen gelmelisin.
(“You must come.”)
O yapmalı.
(“He / she / it must do.”)
O gelmeli.
(“He / she / it must come.”)
Biz yapmalıyız.
(“We must do.”)
Biz gelmeliyiz.
(“We must come.”)
Siz yapmalısınız.
(“You must do.”)
Siz gelmelisiniz.
(“You must come.”)
Onlar yapmalılar.
(“They must do.”)
Onlar gelmeliler.
(“They must come.”)

C. Simple Present Tense

The simple present tense is used for the actions that we do all the time. Here are the rules for Turkish present tense conjugations:

1. The following suffixes are added to the verb root for verbs ending with a vowel:

Last vowel of the verb root
“He / she / it”

Here are some examples:

Ben boyarım.
(“I paint.”)
Ben söylerim.
(“I tell.”)
Ben okurum.
(“I read.”)
Ben yürürüm.
(“I walk.”)
Sen boyarsın.
(“You paint.”)
Sen söylersin.
(“You tell.”)
Sen okursun.
(“You read.”)
Sen yürürsün.
(“You walk.”)
O boyar.
(“He / she / it paints.”)
O söyler.
(“He / she / it tells.”)
O okur.
(“He / she / it reads.”)
O yürür.
(“He / she / it walks.”)
Biz boyarız.
(“We paint.”)
Biz söyleriz.
(“We tell.”)
Biz okuruz.
(“We read.”)
Biz yürürüz.
(“We walk.”)
Siz boyarsınız.
(“You paint.”)
Siz söylersiniz.
(“You tell.”)
Siz okursunuz.
(“You read.”)
Siz yürürsünüz.
(“You walk.”)
Onlar boyarlar.
(“They paint.”)
Onlar söylerler.
(“They tell.”)
Onlar okurlar.
(“They read.”)
Onlar yürürler.
(“They walk.”)

2. The following suffixes are added to the verb root for verbs that have one syllable and end with a consonant:

Last vowel of the verb root
“He / she / it”

Please note that there are some exceptions to this rule: 

  • Almak – “To take”
  • Bilmek “To know”
  • Bulmak – “To find”
  • Durmak – “To stop”
  • Gelmek – “To come”
  • Görmek – “To see”
  • Kalmak – “To stay”
  • Olmak (helping verb) – “To be”
  • Ölmek – “To die”
  • Sanmak “To suppose”
  • Vermek – “To give”
  • Varmak “To arrive”

Here are some examples for this rule:

Ben açarım.
(“I open.”)
Ben severim.
(“I love.”)
Sen açarsın.
(“You open.”)
Sen seversin.
(“You love.”)
O açar.
(“He / she / it opens.”)
O sever.
(“He / she / it loves.”)
Biz açarız.
(“We open.”)
Biz severiz.
(“We love.”)
Siz açarsınız.
(“You open.”)
Siz seversiniz.
(“You love.”)
Onlar açarlar.
(“They open.”)
Onlar severler.
(“They love.”)

3. The following suffixes are added to the verb root for verbs that have more than one syllable and end with a consonant:

Last vowel of the verb root
“He / she / it”

Below are some examples for this rule:

Ben çalışırım.
(“I work.”)
Ben öğretirim.
(“I teach.”)
Ben unuturum.
(“I forget.”)
Ben götürürüm.
(“I take.”)
Sen çalışırsın.
(“You work.”)
Sen öğretirsin.
(“You teach.”)
Sen unutursun.
(“You forget.”)
Sen götürürsün.
(“You take.”)
O çalışır.
(“He / she / it works.”)
O öğretir.
(“He / she / it teaches.”)
O unutur.
(“He / she / it forgets.”)
O götürür.
(“He / she / it takes.”)
Biz çalışırız.
(“We work.”)
Biz öğretiriz.
(“We teach.”)
Biz unuturuz.
(“We forget.”)
Biz götürürüz.
(“We take.”)
Siz çalışırsınız.
(“You work.”)
Siz öğretirsiniz.
(“You teach.”)
Siz öğretirsiniz.
(“You teach.”)
Siz götürürsünüz.
(“You take.”)
Onlar çalışırlar.
(“They work.”)
Onlar öğretirler.
(“They teach.”)
Onlar unuturlar.
(“They forget.”)
Onlar götürürler.
(“They take.”)

Please also note that sometimes helping words such as etmek and olmak are combined together with other words like kaybolmak and seyretmek. These verbs don’t follow this rule; instead, the rule that applies to the helping verbs etmek and olmak is used.

D. Present Continuous Tense

If the verb root ends in a vowel, the vowel at the end is dropped and the following suffixes are added. The suffixes shown below also are used for verbs ending with a consonant:

“He / she / it”

Please take a look at the examples below:

Ben arıyorum.
(“I am looking for.”)
Ben geliyorum.
(“I am coming.”)
Ben soruyorum.
(“I am asking.”)
Ben bölüyorum.
(“I’m dividing.”)
Sen arıyorsun.
(“You are looking for.”)
Sen geliyorsun.
(“You are coming.”)
Sen soruyorsun.
(“You are asking.”)
Sen bölüyorsun.
(“You are dividing.”)
O arıyor.
(“He / she / it is looking for.”)
O geliyor.
(“He / she / it is coming.”)
O soruyor.
(“He / she / it is asking.”)
O bölüyor.
(“He / she / it is dividing.”)
Biz arıyoruz.
(“We are looking for.”)
Biz geliyoruz.
(“We are coming.”)
Biz soruyoruz.
(“We are asking.”)
Biz bölüyoruz.
(“We are dividing.”)
Siz arıyorsunuz.
(“You are looking for.”)
Siz geliyorsunuz.
(“You are coming.”)
Siz soruyorsunuz.
(“You are asking.”)
Siz bölüyorsunuz.
(“You are dividing.”)
Onlar arıyorlar.
(“They are looking for.”)
Onlar geliyorlar.
(“They are coming.”)
Onlar soruyorlar.
 (“They are asking.”)
Onlar bölüyorlar.
(“They are dividing.”)
A List of Different Verbs in Conjugated Forms

E. Past Tense

To use the correct rule for past tense conjugations, you need to check the last vowel and the last letter of the verb. Study this Turkish conjugation table to see what we mean:

Last vowel of the verb root
PersonIf the very last letter of the verb root is one of these letters: ç/f/h/k/s/ş/t/p.If the very last letter of the verb root contains the rest of the consonants.If the very last letter of the verb root is one of these letters: ç/f/h/k/s/ş/t/p.If the very last letter of the verb root contains the rest of the consonants.If the very last letter of the verb root is one of these letters: ç/f/h/k/s/ş/t/p.If the very last letter of the verb root contains the rest of the consonants.If the very last letter of the verb root is one of these letters: ç/f/h/k/s/ş/t/p.If the very last letter of the verb root contains the rest of the consonants.
“He / she / it”
-dı -tı
-dı -tu-du -tu-du

Below are some examples that will help you understand the Turkish conjugation for the past tense better:

Ben sattım.
(“I sold.”)
Ben temizledim.
(“I cleaned.”)
Ben oturdum.
(“I sat down.”)
Ben öptüm.
(“I kissed.”)
Sen sattın.
(“You sold.”)
Sen temizledin.
(“You cleaned.”)
Sen oturdun.
(“You sat down.”)
Sen öptün.
(“You kissed.”)
O sat.
(“He / she / it sold.”)
O temizledi.
(“He / she / it cleaned.”)
O oturdu.
(“He / she / it sat down.”)
O öp.
(“He / she / it kissed.”)
Biz sattık.
(“We sold.”)
Biz temizledik.
(“We cleaned.”)
Biz oturduk.
(“We sat down.”)
Biz öptük.
(“We kissed.”)
Siz sattınız.
(“You sold.”)
Siz temizlediniz.
(“You cleaned.”)
Siz oturdunuz.
(“You sat down.”)
Siz öptünüz.
(“You kissed.”)
Onlar sattılar.
(“They sold.”)
Onlar temizlediler.
(“They cleaned.”)
Onlar oturdular.
(“They sat down.”)
Onlar öptüler.
(“They kissed.”)

F. Future Tense

Verbs ending with a consonantVerbs ending with a vowel
“He / she / it”

There are two words that have an exception: demek (“to say,” “to tell”) and yemek (“to eat”). The letter e changes to i, and then the above-mentioned suffixes are added. For example:

  • Ben yiyeceğim. (“I will eat.”)
  • Sen diyeceksin. (“You will tell.”) 

Here are some examples:

Ben yazacağım.
(“I will write.”)
Ben seçeceğim.
(“I will choose.”)
Ben uyuyacağım.
(“I will sleep.”)
Ben deneyeceğim.
(“I will try.”)
Sen yazacaksın.
(“You will write.”)
Sen seçeceksin.
(“You will choose.”)
Sen uyuyacaksın.
(“You will sleep.”)
Sen deneyeceksin.
(“You will try.”)
O yazacak.
(“He / she / it will write.”)
O seçecek.
(“He / she / it will choose.”)
O uyuyacak.
(“He / she / it will sleep.”)
O deneyecek.
(“He / she / it will try.”)
Biz yazacağız.
(“We will write.”)
Biz seçeceğiz.
(“We will choose.”)
Biz uyuyacağız.
(“We will sleep.”)
Biz deneyeceğiz.
(“We will try.”)
Siz yazacaksınız.
(“You will write.”)
Siz seçeceksiniz.
(“You will choose.”)
Siz uyuyacaksınız.
(“You will sleep.”)
Siz deneyeceksiniz.
(“You will try.”)
Onlar yazacaklar.
(“They will write.”)
Onlar seçecekler.
(“They will choose.”)
Onlar uyuyacaklar.
(“They will sleep.”)
Onlar deneyecekler.
(“They will try.”)

G. Negativity

Creating the negative form of “to be” is simple. The word değil means “not,” and it takes the personal suffix. Let me explain it with examples:

Ben şişman değilim.
“I am not fat.”
Sen şişman değilsin.
“You are not fat.”
O şişman değil.
“He / she / it is not fat.”
Biz şişman değiliz.
“We are not fat.”
Siz şişman değilsiniz.
“You are not fat.”
Onlar şişman değiller.
“They are not fat.”

H. Interrogation

Let’s look at the present form of “yes or no” questions. Here are the words that turn a sentence into a closed question. I said “words” because they’re not suffixes, but separate words, which don’t mean anything when used alone.

Last vowel of the last syllable
“He / she / it”
Woman Holding Signs that Say


  • Sen aşçı mısın?
    (“Are you a cook?”)
    Singular “you”

  • Siz deli misiniz?
    (“Are you crazy?”)
    Plural “you”

  • O tok mu?
    (“Is he / she / it full?”)

  • Biz kötü müyüz?
    (“Are we bad?”)

3. Verb Modification

Negative Verbs

Now let’s look at a few different ways to modify verbs.

I. Passive

Verbs can be made passive by adding n if the verb ends with a vowel:

  • Aramak “To look for,” “To call”

The verb root is ara; it takes n and becomes:

  • Aranmak – “To be looked for,” “To be called”

You can also add ıl, il, ul, or ül depending on the vowel harmony if the verb ends with a consonant other than l:

  • Açmak – “To open”
  • Açılmak – “To be opened”
  • Yermek “To criticize”
  • Yerilmek “To be criticized”
  • Sunmak “To offer”
  • Sunulmak “To be offered”
  • Çözmek “To resolve”
  • Çözülmek “To be resolved”

Finally, you can add ın, in, un, or ün depending on the vowel harmony if the verb ends with l

  • Çalmak “To steal”
  • Çalınmak – “To be stolen”
  • Silmek “To delete”
  • Silinmek “To be deleted”
  • Bulmak “To find”
  • Bulunmak “To be found”
  • Bölmek “To divide”
  • Bölünmek “To be divided”

II. Causative

The causative verbs are formed by adding the causative suffix after the verb root according to the vowel harmony rules.

Add t if the verb ends with a vowel, or  r:

  • Aramak “To look for”
  • Aratmak “To have somebody look for”
  • Oturmak “To sit down”
  • Oturtmak “To seat somebody”

Add ır, ir, ur, or ür based on the vowel harmony if the verb stem ends with ş or ç:

  • Düşmek “To fall”
  • Düşürmek “To make somebody fall”
  • İçmek “To drink”
  • İçirmek “To have somebody drink”

Most verbs get the following suffixes based on the vowel harmony:

 dir, dır, dür, dur, tir, tır, tür, tur

  • Gülmek “To laugh”
  • Güldürmek “To make somebody laugh”

A few mono-syllable verbs ending in k take -it, -ıt, -üt, or -ut suffixes:

  • Korkmak “To be scared”
  • Korkutmak – “To scare someone”
  • Akmak “To flow”
  • Akıtmak – “To let something flow”

There are also some verbs  that take the -er and -ar suffixes:

  • Kopmak “To break off”
  • Koparmak – “To make something break off”

There is one verb that’s irregular:

  • Görmek “To see”
  • Göstermek “To show”

Double causative verbs also exist: 

  • Pişmek “To cook” (ex: the meat cooks) 
  • Pişirmek “To cook” (ex: my wife cooks the meat) 
  • Pişirtmek “To have something cooked” 
  • Ölmek “To die” 
  • Öldürmek “To kill” 
  • Öldürtmek “To have someone killed” 

III. Reflexive

You can create a reflexive verb by adding the suffix -in. For example:

IV. Verbs of Mutual Action

Here are some examples:

  • Görmek “To see”
  • Görüşmek “To see one another” or “To converse”
  • Görüşülmek “To be conversed about”
  • Görüştürmek “To make conversation with one another”
  • Görüştürülmek “To be made to converse with one another”

4. Ready for a Challenge?

After all this information, are you ready for some Turkish verb conjugation practice? How about taking a short quiz to see how much information you’ve absorbed about Turkish conjugation?

1. How is the verb atlamak (“to jump”) conjugated in the first person plural as future tense?

a. Atladım

b. Atlayacağım

c.  Atlıyorsunuz

d. Atlayacağız

2. Complete the sentence with the correct present “to be” suffix.

Biz güzel….. (“We are beautiful.”)

a. dik

b. iz

c.  eceğiz

d. ıyoruz

3. Complete the sentence with the correct past tense suffix.

Ben gör…. (“I saw”)

a. düm

b. dük

c.   üm

d. eceğim

4. Complete the sentence with the correct present continuous tense suffix.

Sen iç…….. (“You are drinking”)

a. tim

b. sın

c.  eceğim

d. iyorsun

5. Complete the sentence with the correct modal verb suffix.

Siz koş………. (“You must run”)

a. abilirsiniz

b. acaksınız

c.  malısınız

d. uyorsunuz

Are you looking for the answer key? If so, you need to read the rest to get to it!

5. Conclusion

How does it feel to learn about those Turkish conjugation rules? Seems like too much info, huh? If you have combined all the Turkish verb conjugation charts and created a Turkish verbs conjugation PDF file for yourself, then you can refresh your memory whenever you need to. Furthermore, make sure to visit our website, TurkishClass101.com, to reinforce what you’ve learned.

Please keep in touch with us to share your learning experience.

Last but not least, here are the answers to the quiz:

1.d; 2.b; 3.a; 4.d; 5.c

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