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Lesson Transcript

Brandon: Hi everyone! I’m Brandon. Welcome to TurkishClass101.com. This is Lower Beginner, Season 1, Lesson 1: “You'll Need a Hat to Survive the Turkish Summer!”
Feyza: Merhaba. I'm Feyza.
Brandon: Feyza, what are we going to learn in this lesson?
Feyza: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use possessive pronouns to show ownership.
Brandon: This conversation takes place at Asu's house and is between Hakan and Asu.
Feyza: They’re heading outside to enjoy the Turkish summer.
Brandon: The speakers are close friends, so they’ll be speaking informal Turkish. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Hakan: Dışarısı sıcak.
Asu: Evet, gerçekten sıcak. Yaz geldi ondan.
Hakan: Şapkam nerede?
Asu: Hımm, bu mu?
Hakan: Hayır, o senin şapkan.
Brandon: Let’s listen to the conversation one time slowly.
Hakan: Dışarısı sıcak.
Asu: Evet, gerçekten sıcak. Yaz geldi ondan.
Hakan: Şapkam nerede?
Asu: Hımm, bu mu?
Hakan: Hayır, o senin şapkan.
Brandon: Now, listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Hakan: It's hot out there.
Asu: Yeah, really hot. It’s because summer's here.
Hakan: Where's my hat?
Asu: Uh, is this it?
Hakan: No, that's your hat.
Brandon: Feyza, what’s the summer like in Turkey?
Feyza: Well, it depends on where you are. Summer weather in Turkey varies by region. For example, the coastal areas by the Aegean Sea or Ege denizi and the Mediterranean Sea or Akdeniz have a temperate climate with hot, dry summers.
Brandon: What about the region near the Black Sea?
Feyza: They have warm summers with occasional showers and high humidity.
Brandon: What about Istanbul?
Feyza: Well, Istanbul is located in the coastal Marmara region. It’s climate is transitional, between the temperate Mediterranean climate and the temperate Oceanic climate of the Black Sea. So, Istanbul has a warm summer that’s moderately dry.
Brandon: So, it sounds like it’ll be warm everywhere, but the regions might vary according to how much rain they get.
Feyza: That’s right.
Brandon: Where’s your favorite place to spend the summer in Turkey?
Feyza: I really like the Coastal Aegean and Mediterranean Regions. They’re famous for their long, sandy beaches and equally exciting night life.
Brandon: Listener's if you’re planning a trip to Turkey in the summer, be sure to check out these spots. Okay, now on to the vocab.
Brandon: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word is...
Feyza: ...sıcak. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “Hot.”
Feyza: Sıcak. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Sıcak. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Feyza: ...dışarı [natural native speed]
Brandon: “Outside.”
Feyza: Dışarı. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Dışarı. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Our next word is...
Feyza: ...gerçekten. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “Really.”
Feyza: Gerçekten. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Gerçekten. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next…
Feyza: ...yaz. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “Summer.”
Feyza: Yaz. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Yaz. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next we have...
Feyza: ...gelmek. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “To come.”
Feyza: Gelmek. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Gelmek. [natural native speed]
Brandon: The next word is...
Feyza: ...şapka. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “Hat.”
Feyza: Şapka. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Şapka. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Next...
Feyza: ...evet. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “Yes.”
Feyza: Evet. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Evet. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Our final word is...
Feyza: ...hayır. [natural native speed]
Brandon: “No.”
Feyza: Hayır. [slowly - broken down by syllable] Hayır. [natural native speed]
Brandon: Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is...
Feyza: ...gelmek.
Brandon: Meaning "to come” or “to arrive."
Feyza: Yes, the root of this verb is gel, meaning “to come over.” By adding the suffix -mek, we create the verb gelmek in the infinitive form.
Brandon: Listeners, Turkish is an agglutinative language. That means that it’s a language of words formed by root words and prefixes or suffixes, also called morphemes. There’s a diverse range of suffixes that can be used to change the tense of the root word.
Feyza: And, two suffixes for the infinitive form of verbs are -mek and -mak. Their use depends on the Turkish vowel harmony rules, which will be explained in more advanced lessons.
Brandon: Feyza, when can we use this keyword?
Feyza: Gelmek can be used to describe all of the actions for reaching, arriving, or coming to a destination. Sometimes it’s used with the phrase geri gelmek, meaning “to return back.”
Brandon: Then, when can we not use this word?
Feyza: Well, we wouldn’t use gelmek to describe coming to visit on a plane, or other means of transportation.
Brandon: What should we use instead?
Fezya: Well, to say, ''The plane has arrived,'' we should say, uçak indi, meaning ''The plane has landed.” We use this phrase instead of uçak geldi, meaning “The plane has arrived,” because this sounds unnatural in daily language.
Brandon: Okay, got it, let’s move on to the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson, you'll learn how to use possessive pronouns to show ownership.
Feyza: In the dialogue, Hakan said, hayır, o senin şapkan.
Brandon: Meaning, “No, that's your hat.” Hakan used the possessive pronoun “your” to distinguish between his hat and Asu’s.
Feyza: But, before we learn about possessive pronouns, let's review pronouns in Turkish.
Brandon: Feyza will say each Turkish pronoun, and then I’ll say the English translation. You can follow along with the Lesson Notes.
Feyza: Ben.
Brandon: “I.”
Feyza: Sen.
Brandon: “You.”
Feyza: O.
Brandon: “He, she, or it.”
Feyza: Biz.
Brandon: “We.”
Feyza: Siz.
Brandon: “You,” in its plural form.
Feyza: Onlar.
Brandon: “They.” Okay, now that we’ve reviewed the major pronouns, let’s turn to possessive pronouns. Feyza, can you explain how we create a possessive pronoun?
Feyza: Sure! To create a possessive pronoun, we add a suffix to the pronoun as well as to the noun that it modifies.
Brandon: Let’s go through each pronoun to see which suffix is added and how it’s transformed into its possessive form.
Feyza: Of course. I’ll start with the Turkish word, and you follow with the English translation, okay?
Brandon: Okay, let’s go.
Feyza: Ben, plus im creates benim, or…
Brandon: “My.”
Feyza: But here’s an important note. When you use them in a sentence, you also need to add one more suffix after the main noun to modify it. For the word benim meaning “My”, you need to add the suffix m the letter “m” after the noun.
Brandon: Can you give us an example?
Feyza: Sure. Let’s use the noun kedi meaning “cat.” To say “My cat” in Turkish, you need to put the possessive pronoun Benim, then the noun kedi.
Brandon: But that’s not the end, right?
Feyza: That’s right. After the noun, you need to put another suffix m or im.
Brandon: How do you know when to use m or im?
Feyza: When the noun ends in a vowel, you need to use the suffix m, and when it ends in a consonant you need to use the suffix im. The Turkish word kedi ends in a vowel, so you need to use the suffix m for the word. So “My cat” in Turkish will be Benim kedim. Benim / Kedi / m.
Brandon: I think that’s why Turkish people can understand what you mean even if you just say the noun, right?
Feyza: That’s right. Even if you don’t say Benim meaning “My” in a sentence, we can easily figure out what you mean by checking the additional suffix after the noun, such as m as in Kedim.
Brandon: That’s good to know. Okay, let’s move to the next possessive pronoun.
Feyza: Okay. Sen, plus in creates senin, or…
Brandon: “Your.”
Feyza: The additional suffix for this possessive pronoun is n.
Brandon: So “your cat” in Turkish is..
Feyza: Senin kedin. Senin / Kedi / n. Make sure to put the additional suffix n after the noun, when it ends in a vowel. When the noun ends in a consonant, you need to use in.
Brandon: Okay, how do you say “his, hers, or its” in Turkish?
Feyza: First you need to put the pronoun O, then nun. It creates onun which means “his”, “hers”, or “its.”
Brandon: So “his cat” in Turkish is..?
Feyza: Onun kedisi. Onun / kedi / si. Make sure you put si after the noun.
Brandon: For the pronoun Onun, you need to choose the right suffix according to the Turkish vowel harmony rules. We’re going to cover them in a minute. Feyza, the next pronoun is “ours” right?
Feyza: That’s right. You can use the pronoun Biz, plus im. Bizim.
Brandon: Then, how do you say “our cats” in Turkish?
Feyza: Bizim kedimiz. Bizim / kedi / miz. We have miz after the noun. When a noun ends in a consonant, you need to use imiz.
Brandon: Listener's. Be sure to check the lesson notes for more information.
Feyza: Okay, now let’s talk about the Turkish vowel harmony rules. It play an important part in determining the vowels and buffer letters in the suffixes, especially in the case that you want to say “his”, “hers”, or “its” in Turkish.
Brandon: Let's look at some examples.
Feyza: Okay, let’s use the third person singular, onun, meaning “his, hers, or its.” O-nun kalem-i means...
Brandon: ...“his pen.”
Feyza: O-nun araba-s-ı means...
Brandon: ...“his car.” Listeners, did you notice the different forms for the suffixes attached to each noun? The two nouns were…
Feyza: ...kalem and araba. “His pen” is kalemi, but when we said, “his car,” we said arabası. With araba, the suffix ı is changed to i and s is added as a buffer letter. That’s because the last letter of araba is the vowel a.
Brandon: In Turkish, you can not have two consecutive vowels in a word.
Feyza: That’s right, so we must add an s as a buffer letter to separate the vowels.
Brandon: Feyza, can you give us some additional examples using possessive pronouns?
Feyza: Sure. In the dialogue, we heard Hakan say, şapkam nerede?
Brandon: Meaning, “Where's my hat?”
Feyza: Here’s another one. Onun kedisi güzel mi?
Brandon: “Is his cat beautiful?”
Feyza: And lastly, benim arabam son model.
Brandon: “My car is brand new.” Well, that about wraps up our lesson. Be sure to check out the Lesson Notes for more details!


Brandon: Thank you for listening, everyone. See you next time!
Feyza: Görüşürüz.