Dialogue - Turkish

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Vocabulary

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rüzgarlı windy
hava weather, air
fırtına storm
nemli humid
yağmur rain
beklemek to wait
öğleden sonra afternoon
yağmak to rain
çiselemek to drizzle

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of this Lesson is Talking About the Weather.
Yağmur mu yağıyor?

"Is it raining?"

 


 

 

 

1. How to talk about the weather 


 

 

The weather and the temperature are always the safest topics for making small talk, so let's look at some of the related adjectives. When describing the weather with adjectives, the adjective is used at the end of the sentence. If you're going to talk about weather in the past, past tense suffix -di or -miş can be added to the adjective. However, present continuous or future tense suffixes/infixes cannot be used with adjectives; instead, the auxiliary verbs olmak ("to be") should be used.

Vocabulary List: Adjectives Related to Temperature and Weather

Let's look at four adjectives describing the air temperature. They're really useful, so try to memorize them.

Turkish

"English"

sıcak

"hot"

soğuk

"cold"

ılık

"warm"

serin

"cool"

 

Describing the Day's Temperature

In Turkish hava means "weather" or "air," and when you combine it with one of the adjectives above, your description is complete. It's very simple. For example, Hava sıcak means "It's hot." Try to replace sıcak with soğuk, ılık, or serin and add çok ("too") in front of the adjective.

 

Adjectives and Expressions about Weather

Some adjectives and their English equivalents are:

açık

"bright and clear"

güneşli

"sunny"

yağmurlu

"rainy"

bulutlu

"cloudy"

nemli

"humid"

karlı

"snowy"

ayaz

"frost"

serin

"cool"

sağanak

"downpour"

çiseleme

"drizzle"

ağır yağış

"heavy rain"

hafif yağış

"light rain"

kar

"snow"

kar fırtınası

"blizzard"

bulut

"cloud"

For example:

  1. Dün kar yağdı ve hava çok soğuktu.
    "It snowed yesterday and the temperature was freezing."
  2. Mersin'in havası sıcak ve nemlidir.
    "Mersin is hot and humid."
  3. İstanbul'da Mayıs ılık olur.
    "Istanbul is warm during May."

 

2. The Present Continuous



 

In this lesson you will also learn how to talk about the weather using the "present continuous tense."

Here are some examples from the dialogue:

  1. Sadece çiseliyor.
    "It's just drizzling."
  2. Fırtına bekleniyormuş.
      "A storm is expected."

As you can see there is a common element in these two verbs, the infix/suffix -yor-.

Let's take a look at another verb for the conjugation: çizmek ("to draw"). In present continuous tense with personal suffixes, çizmek becomes:

  • çiz-iyor-um (First person singular) "I am drawing."
  • çiz-iyor-sun (Second person singular) "You are drawing."
  • çiz-iyor (Third person singular) "He/she/it is drawing."
  • çiz-iyor-uz (First person plural) "We are drawing."
  • çiz-iyor-sunuz (Second person plural) "You are drawing."
  • çiz-iyor-lar (Third person plural) "They are drawing."

 

The -iyor infix also changes into -ıyor,-uyor, or -üyor depending on the vowel harmony rules. Here, the rule is that the vowel i must change into another vowel to comply with the final vowel in the verb root.

Let's illustrate the previous explanation with a few examples.

- yağ-ıyor means "It is raining." Here, the -iyor suffix  i turns into ı to match the final vowel of the verb root, which is also ı.

- dur-uyor means "It is stopping." Here, the -iyor suffix i turns into u to match the final vowel of the verb root, which is also u.

- büzül-üyor means "He/she/it is shrinking." Here, the -iyor suffix i turns into ü to match the final vowel of the verb root, which is also ü.

Let's also look at how to form negative sentences using this tense.

To make a present continuous tense verb negative you need to attach the negative suffix -me right after the verb root. As you know, in Turkish two vowels cannot exist in sequence. Therefore, the -e- in -me can't go with the -i in -iyor. Just like in çisele-me-iyor, -e drops and the word becomes çiselemiyor.


Examples from the dialogue:

  1. Hava nemli ve rüzgarlı. Fırtına bekleniyormuş.
    "The weather is humid and windy. A storm is expected."

 

Sample Sentences



  1. Ankara'da yazın yağmur yağmaz.
    "It doesn't rain in Ankara during summer."
  2. Bu dolu yağışı beklenmiyordu.
    "This hail wasn't expected."

 

Cultural Insights

The Four Seasons of Turkey

Turkish people love the summer season, as most people get to go on long vacations during the summer months, but complaints of Hava çok sıcak! ("It's so hot!") are often heard. Southern beaches receive floods of both international and domestic tourists, while mountains in the North host those who don't want to get a suntan and prefer the calm of green plateaus. Regardless of the location, having a picnic is the number one activity but no Turkish summer picnic is ever complete without watermelons or mangal (Turkish barbecue). After long summer days of fun and laziness, autumn is the time for students to head back to school and grown ups to go back to their jobs. Rain is a common sight in most places, and the phrases bardaktan boşalırcasına ("as if water is being poured from a glass") or Nuh'un tufanı gibi ("like Noah's flood") are used to describe heavy rain falls. Also, autumn months are lively with the traditional preparation of staple foods for the winter. Not too many households in the city still participate in this tradition but for those who do, it's a flurry of activities like making copious amounts of tomato and pepper paste, drying vegetables on strings, making pickles and jams, etc. Everyone helps each other with these tasks and winter preparations are usually done long before the first snow hits the ground. Winter is mild in the South and very harsh in the North; snow piles can block village roads in Eastern Anatolia. Although families and friends gather inside, no one can keep children from playing in the snow especially when it's lapa lapa ("slow but heavy snow fall"). Eating kestane ("chestnut") and mandalina ("tangerine") is a winter time tradition. About a month after the New Year's celebrations, the weather starts to warm up unnoticeably slowly, a phenomenon called cemre düşmesi in Turkish, which signals the arrival of spring. Spring is usually brief with the commonly found plum trees and gelincik (literally "little bride," the red poppy) blooming beautifully. During mid-spring, Turkish people celebrate a religious festival called Hıdrellez by burying symbolic objects under rose plants and jumping over bonfires. The warm days of spring then turn into often scorchingly hot days of summer.

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to TurkishClass101.com. This is Beginner Season 1 Lesson 1 - How Many Seasons Are There in Turkey? Eric here.
Elif: Merhaba. I'm Elif.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to talk about the weather. The conversation takes place in an office.
Elif: It's between Ahmet and Zeynep.
Eric: The speakers are friends, so they’ll use informal Turkish. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
Ahmet: Yağmur mu yağıyor?
Zeynep: Yok, sadece çiseliyor.
Ahmet: Hava nemli ve rüzgarlı. Fırtına bekleniyormuş.
Zeynep: Evet, öğleden sonra.
Eric: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
Ahmet: Yağmur mu yağıyor?
Zeynep: Yok, sadece çiseliyor.
Ahmet: Hava nemli ve rüzgarlı. Fırtına bekleniyormuş.
Zeynep: Evet, öğleden sonra.
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Ahmet: Is it raining?
Zeynep: No, just drizzling.
Ahmet: The weather is humid and windy. A storm is expected.
Zeynep: Yes, in the afternoon.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Eric: Elif, do Turkish people have a favorite season? And what can you tell us about the climate in Turkey?
Elif: Turkish people love the summer season as most people get to go on long vacations during the summer months, but you’ll often hear complaints of Hava çok sıcak!, meaning “it’s so hot!”
Eric: Turkey also has beautiful beaches that seem perfect for the summer.
Elif: Yes, The southern beaches receive floods of both international and domestic tourists, and the mountains in the north host those who don't want to get a suntan and prefer the calm of green surroundings.
Eric: What about autumn?
Elif: After the long summer days of fun and laziness, autumn is when students head back to school and grown ups go back to their jobs. But the autumn months are lively with the traditional preparation of staple foods for the winter.
Eric: Is the winter very cold?
Elif: Winter is mild in the south and very harsh in the north; snow piles can even block village roads in Eastern Anatolia.
Eric: After that comes spring.
Elif:About a month after the New Year's celebrations, the weather starts to warm up almost unnoticeably slowly, a phenomenon called cemre düşmesi in Turkish, which signals the arrival of spring.
Eric: Are there any weather idioms?
Elif: Yes, for example, when the abundant autumn rains start, people say bardaktan boşalırcasına
Eric: Which means “as if water is being poured from a glass.” Listeners, you can find more words and sayings related to the four seasons in the lesson notes. Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Elif: yağmur [natural native speed]
Eric: rain
Elif: yağmur[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: yağmur [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: yağmak [natural native speed]
Eric: to rain
Elif: yağmak[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: yağmak [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: çiselemek [natural native speed]
Eric: to drizzle
Elif: çiselemek[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: çiselemek [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: hava [natural native speed]
Eric: weather
Elif: hava[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: hava [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: nemli [natural native speed]
Eric: humid
Elif: nemli[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: nemli [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: rüzgarlı [natural native speed]
Eric: windy
Elif: rüzgarlı[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: rüzgarlı [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: fırtına [natural native speed]
Eric: storm
Elif: fırtına[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: fırtına [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Elif: beklemek [natural native speed]
Eric: to wait
Elif: beklemek[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: beklemek [natural native speed]
Eric: And lastly..
Elif: öğleden sonra [natural native speed]
Eric: afternoon
Elif: öğleden sonra[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elif: öğleden sonra [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Eric: Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Elif: yağmak
Eric: meaning "to rain, to fall, to drop."
Elif: This verb is exclusively used for objects falling down from the sky. The noun form of the verb, yağış, covers all objects falling from the sky
Eric: Just remember that the verb doesn't say what is falling down, so you should always specify.
Elif: Exactly, just add a noun before the verb, such as yağmur, meaning "rain," or kar, meaning "snow."
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Elif: Sure. For example, you can say.. Rize'de kar yağdı.
Eric: ..which means "It snowed in Rize." Is there any special idiom that uses this verb?
Elif: Yes, a common phrase is başımıza taş yağacak
Eric: meaning "we're going to be punished by falling rocks." This is something you’d say after doing something wrong. Okay, what's the next word?
Elif: beklemek
Eric: meaning "to wait” or “to expect."
Elif: In a weather context, beklemek is mostly used in its passive form as an "expectation," so beklenmek,
Eric: meaning "to be expected." Weather forecasts often use this verb to describe the potential for rain, snow, or hail in an area. Can you give us an example using this word?
Elif: Sure. For example, you can say.. Bu ay fırtına beklenmiyor.
Eric: .. which means "No storm is expected for this month." Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson, you'll learn how to talk about the weather. The weather and the temperature are always the safest topics for making small talk, so let’s look at some of the related adjectives.
Elif: When describing the weather with adjectives, the adjective goes at the end of the sentence. If you’re going to talk about weather in the past, the past tense suffix -di or -miş can be added to the adjective.
Eric: On the other hand, let’s remember that present continuous or future tense suffixes/infixes cannot be used with adjectives.
Elif: In those cases, the auxiliary verb olmak, meaning “to be,” should be used.
Eric: Which are the four most common adjectives to describe air temperature?
Elif: sıcak
Eric: which means “hot,”
Elif:soğuk
Eric: "cold,"
Elif: ılık
Eric: "warm,"
Elif: serin
Eric: "cool." Can you give us an example using one of these adjectives?
Elif: Hava sıcak
Eric: which means “It’s hot.”
Elif: Listeners, try to replace sıcak with soğuk, ılık or serin and add çok, which means “too” in front of the adjective. For example Hava çok soğuk.
Eric: “It’s too cold.” Let’s give some more complex examples.
Elif: Sure, for example you can say, Dün kar yağdı ve hava çok soğuktu.
Eric: which means “It snowed yesterday and the temperature was freezing.”
Elif: You can also say Mersin’in havası sıcak ve nemlidir.
Eric: “Mersin is hot and humid.” Elif, which words are “hot” and “humid” in this example?
Elif: sıcak is “hot” and nemlidir is “humid.” Here’s an example using ılık, which means “warm.” İstanbul’da Mayıs ılık olur.
Eric: “Istanbul is warm during May.”
Elif: Other useful adjectives could be açık,
Eric: meaning “bright and clear,”
Elif: güneşli
Eric: “sunny,”
Elif: yağmurlu,
Eric: “rainy.” Listeners, in the lesson notes, you can find more. Now let’s add a grammar point, the “present continuous tense.”
Elif: In the dialogue, we had Sadece çiseliyor
Eric: meaning “It’s just drizzling.”
Elif: and Fırtına bekleniyormuş
Eric: “A storm is expected.”
Elif: As you can see, there is a common element in these two verbs, çiseliyor and bekleniyormuş the infix/suffix -yor-.
Eric: This infix -yor- is a characteristic of the “present continuous tense.”
Elif: Yes, and it can change into -ıyor,-uyor, or -üyor depending on the vowel harmony rules.
Eric: Can we see the entire conjugation for one verb?
Elif: Sure, let’s consider çizmek meaning "to draw."
Eric: “I am drawing” is...
Elif: çiz-iyor-um
Eric:''You are drawing.''
Elif: çiz-iyor-sun
Eric: ''He/she/it is drawing.''
Elif: çiz-iyor
Eric: ''We are drawing."
Elif: çiz-iyor-uz
Eric: ''You are drawing.'' In the plural form, we have...
Elif: çiz-iyor-sunuz
Eric: ''They are drawing.''
Elif: çiz-iyor-lar
Eric: Ok, now, let’s see the negative form.
Elif: All you need to do is to attach the negative suffix -me after the verb root.
Eric: But as you know, in Turkish, two vowels cannot exist in sequence.
Elif: Therefore, the -e- in -me can't go with the -i in -iyorI, so for example in çisele-me-iyor, -e drops and the word becomes çiselemiyor.
Eric: Ok, let’s wrap up this lesson with a couple of sample sentences.
Elif: Ankara'da yazın yağmur yağmaz.
Eric: "It doesn't rain in Ankara during summer."
Elif: Bu dolu yağışı beklenmiyordu.
Eric: "This hail wasn't expected."

Outro

Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Elif: Hoşçakalın.